The itinerary of Beauty 2020 counts now 12 destinations.
Twelve cities in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino joined the project for the promotion, communication and touristic enhancement created by Confcommercio (Association of Merchants) of Pesaro Urbino /Northern Marche.
The ITINERARY is a trip through the charms of one of the most beautiful Italian areas. It unites high quality beach resorts (Gabicce Mare, Pesaro and Fano) and towns and cities rich with history, art and culture, all immersed in an untouched and fascinating natural environment.
The sweet hills of Marche, softly sloping to the sea (such as Colli al Metauro, Mondavio and Terre Roveresche); the fortified cities surrounded by walls; the historical hamlets; the breathtaking panoramas; the city of Urbino, a World Heritage Site (which in 2020 celebrates the 500th anniversary of Raphael’s death, its most illustrious child); the most important archaeological discoveries of last century (in Pergola and Sant’Angelo in Vado); the immense treasure of works of art kept in churches and museums; romantic and Love places (such as Cagli, Fossombrone and Gradara); a rich enogastronomic offer (further enriched by fairs and truffle exhibitions in Fossombrone, Pergola and Sant’Angelo in Vado); cultural events and historical re-enactments (such as the Wild Boar Hunt in Mondavio, the Duke’s Feast in Urbino, the Goose Prize in Cagli or the Roman re-enactments in Fano and Sant’Angelo in Vado), strongly emotional and by a great international resonance (such as ROF, the Rossini Opera Festival in Pesaro).
Of this and much more consists the Itinerary of Beauty in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, because beauty consists precisely of history, art, culture, environment and territory, quality of agricultural products and excellence of craftsmanship and manufacture.
Confcommercio Pesaro e Urbino/Marche Nord
For the number of events related to Rossini's culture, Pesaro obtained in 2017 the prestigious recognition of UNESCO's Creative City for Music, a title for which it had applied in 2015 with the official support of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers and the Ministry of Cultural Heritage.
On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Rossini's death, in 2018, a piped music system was installed to transmit Rossini's symphonies through the streets of the historic center.
The origins of the city date back to the Iron Age, when Pesaro was a Piceno village, as evidenced by the excavations carried out in the city center in 1977. The name of the city, in Latin Pisaurum, according to some derives from the old name of the river Foglia (Isaurus or Pisaurus).
Tradition has it that the name of the city derives from the fact that, in Roman times, in the city, Furio Camillo, after defeating the Gauls, weighed the gold (aurum in Latin) that the barbarians were stealing from Rome.
In the surrounding area, on the other hand, there was one of the most important and ancient Picene settlements of the Marche: the village of Novilara. This settlement was among the few, along with Numana and Ancona, which overlooked the sea. The port of Novilara used the mouth of a stream.
Among the best known and most discussed finds found in the Pesaro area, there is the stele of Novilara, generally believed to be Picene and written in the Northern Picene language. It was recently interpreted and translated as an archaic Greek inscription , engraved in an alphabet that with some variations had been adopted by all the peoples of Italy (Piceni, Sanniti, Etruschi, etc.) between the sixth and second century BC. From the reinterpretation of the stele it can be deduced that the Greeks (known colonizers in the Mediterranean) also infiltrated these areas (probably in the VI-V century BC), interfering with the previous populations, Picene and probably also Umbrian and Etruscan.
Traces of ancient languages have been preserved in the dialect, especially in the hinterland and are mainly of Greek origin. We can assume a certain hegemony of the Greek over the others, or that the Greek terms spread later, at the time of the Byzantine domination. In any case, we can see the apparent Greek origin of the name Pisaurum, which could mean "behind the mountains", from the location of the city between two hills.
In the 4th century BC, during the Celtic invasion of the Italian peninsula, the Senoni Gauls occupied the northern territories of the Piceni, and therefore also the area of Pesaro, overlapping the previous ethnic groups.
In 184 BC the Romans founded the colony of Pisaurum, (in Latin Pisaurum, whose etymology is the same as the river Foglia, Pisaurus or more likely Isaurus which, following Francisco Villar, takes the form of many other pre-Indo-European hydronyms of Europe); at that time the northern part of the Marche was called by the Romans ager Gallicus and then ager gallicus picenus.
This date of foundation of a center with the current name does not agree with the fact that Strabo in his Geography, published around 18 AD, does not mention Pesaro, while he names Fano and from this passes directly to Rimini. If it is not an oversight of the Greek historian, the foundation of a center of a certain importance and with the name Pisaurum should have a more recent age.
It was subsequently colonized again during the second triumvirate by Ottaviano and Marco Antonio, becoming, during the Empire, a castrum and economic center located on the Via Flaminia.
Destroyed by Vitige in 539 AD, it was rebuilt by Belisario and occupied by the Goths from 545 to 553. After the fall of Rome, Pesaro, with Rimini, Fano, Senigallia and Ancona, became one of the cities of Pentapoli, closely dependent on the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna.
In 752 it was taken by the Lombards who kept it until Pipino the Short, king of the Franks, donated it in 774 to the State of the Church, starting the centuries-old papal dominion over the city. However, this dominion was only nominal, since the city was ruled since the Carolingian age by a representative of the Empire.
In the first half of the twelfth century the flourishing municipality followed the fortunes of the imperial part during the Italian enterprises of Federico Barbarossa. The podestarile government was then introduced in 1182, but already at the end of the century it was subject, as included in the Ancona brand, to the power of Marquardo di Annweiler, imperial vicar who, despite the very hard defeat inflicted on the army of Innocenzo III on March 25 1198, he had to renounce his aims in the face of the military action of the Catholic Church, aimed at the recovery of the stolen territories. In the thirteenth century, once the municipality was restored, it passed under the will of the pope Innocent III under the rule of the Estensi, from 1210 to 1216.
For a long time Ghibelline, during the reign of Frederick II of Swabia, rebelled against the Empire and joined the league of the Guelph cities of the Marca that were at war in 1259 with King Enzo. In the same year, Pesaro was forced to obey by Manfredi di Sicilia, but upon his death in 1266, he returned to the Church.
In the Renaissance the Adriatic city saw a succession of lordships: the Malatesta (1285-1445), the Sforza (1445-1512) whose dominion was interrupted by Cesare Borgia from 1500 to 1503 and later handed over by Pope Julius II to the Della Rovere family ( 1513-1631) with whom he was related.
From a cultural point of view, the end of the 14th century is signaled, with the transfer to Pesaro of the Ceramist from Forlì Pedrinus Johannes by bocalibus, that is Pierino Giovanni dalle boccali (1396), which marks the beginning of a thriving ceramic market. However, the period of greatest cultural fervor was during the domination of the Della Rovere family, who had chosen Pesaro as the headquarters of their duchy. In the first years of their rule, the construction of new public and private buildings began in the city and the construction of a new and safer city wall began, which was also useful to defend against sudden attacks from the sea.
Upon the death of Francesco Maria II Della Rovere in 1631, the Duchy returned under papal domination which made Pesaro a cardinal seat.
At that time the city was much smaller and the coast was more backward, arriving at the current "Primo Maggio square".
In 1799, during the Napoleonic occupation, farmers and Sanfedists stormed the city and the fortress, tearing it for a few months from the garrison.
On 11 September 1860 it was occupied by General Enrico Cialdini and was annexed to the Italian State following the plebiscite of November 1860.
The origins of Urbino are very ancient, the Roman name Urvinum would derive from the Latin term urvus (urvum is the curved handle of the plow), but it is in the fifteenth century that the city lives its maximum splendor.
And it is mainly thanks to the contribution of Federico di Montefeltrohttp: //it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federico_da_Montefeltro that Urbino acquired that monumental and artistic excellence, whose influence has largely spread to the rest of Europe.
This great patron in fact knew not only to transform Urbino into a magnificent princes court, but also to attract in the duchy the best that the Italian Renaissance humanistic culture could offer: Piero della Francesca, Luciano Laurana, Leon Battista Alberti, Francesco di Giorgio Martini, Girolamo Genga and Raphael's father, Giovanni Santi.
Walking along the steep and narrow streets you will find all the buildings of the Renaissance Urbino: the former Monastery of Santa Chiara, the Church of San Domenico, the Mausoleum of the Dukes in the Church of San Bernardino, Palazzo Boghi and the majestic Palazzo Ducale, keeper of the Urbino treasure.
Some of the most important workers of the time were involved in the construction of the building, now home to the Marche National Gallery. And a visit to the Gallery is a must if you want to admire some absolute masterpieces of art history preserved here: "Flagellation of Christ" and "Madonna of Senigallia" by Piero della Francesca, "Communion of the Apostles" by Giusto di Gand; "Miracle of the Ostia Profanata" by Paolo Uccello and the sublime "Muta" by Raphael. Nearby, do not miss the Data (the ducal stables), connected to the Palace by the magnificent helical ramp.
Artistically beautiful, but also beautiful from the landscape point of view: being between two hills, Urbino offers a panorama made up of roofs and churches that are very suggestive.
Both Bramante and Raffaello took their first steps right here in Urbino. Raphael in particular was trained in his father's workshop and made his debut with works commissioned from the nearby towns of the duchy.
In Urbino, the Kite Festival takes place every year, generally held in September. It is a real race in which the winner is the one who manages to fly their kite higher.
Urbino plays Jazz is a festival organized in August by the Urbino Jazz Club association and promoted by the Municipality of Urbino where young talents and established artists have the aim of spreading the tolerant culture of jazz music in the area.
In small workshops art has been created since the 1500s: goldsmiths, cabinet makers, potters, many craftsmen linked to the building industry (plasterers, painters, carpenters, stonemasons); in the shops of the historical center it is possible to look closely at ancient techniques and new creations.
The court of Federico da Montefeltro, as described by Baldassarre Castiglione in Il Cortegiano, introduced the characteristics of the so-called "gentleman" in Europe, which remained fully in vogue until the twentieth century.
Home to one of the oldest universities, Carlo Bo, which was founded in 1506, has more university students than native residents, boasts a famous Academy of Fine Arts, and is also known as the "book capital" because of the Institute for Decoration and illustration of the book born in the second half of the twentieth century.
Equipped with a first medieval defense tower (the 'Mastio') in 1150, the "castle" of Gradara (Castrum Cretarie) was made independent by the Pesaro administration by Piero and Rodolfo De Grifo. Subsequently the Malatesta family, after having purchased the castle from the De Grifo family, transformed the tower into a fortress complete with the first group of walls; subsequently they added also the seven hundred meters of the second group with the seventeen crenellated towers and the three drawbridges that made the fort impregnable.
Once the Malatesta domination ceased, the castle passed to the Sforza family who left their mark on it, adding the beautiful internal loggia, the staircase and the frescoes that still adorn some rooms, including those of the apartment where Lucrezia Borgia lived for three years after the wedding. with Giovanni Sforza (1493). After the Sforzesco period, it passed to the Della Rovere family until the devolution of the aducato of Urbino lla Chiesa (1631).
Only after almost three centuries of neglect and neglect was the engineer Umberto Zanvectors who in 1920 devoted all his substances to the recovery of the fort: what happened gradually, also by his wife Alberta Porta Natale until (1983) it passed into Italian state property.
Today Gradara, in addition to the monumental Rocca, offers the visitor its double wall and towers with the battlements and the recessed eaves walkways. Within the walls, the inhabited area preserves its ancient houses and the church of S.Giovanni Battista where a valuable 15th-century wooden crucifix is kept, while in the church of SS.Sacramento an altarpiece is visible ("Last Supper" ) by Antonio Cimatori (1595).
The precious altarpiece ("Enthroned Madonna with the Child and Saints") painted by Giovanni Santi in 1484 for the ancient parish church of S.Sofia was instead transferred to the Rocca.
It takes an ancient tradition that the ferocious assassination of Paolo Malatesta and Francesca da Polenta by the betrayed Giovanni (Gianciotto) Malatesta called "Lo Sciancato" took place within the walls of the fortress of Gradara. Ancient blood story immortalized by the famous verses of Dante Alighieri.
The small ancient city, founded by the Romans, lies on a slope overlooked by the Citadel and by the remains of the Fifteenth-Century Rocca Malatestiana (Malatestian fortress).
It is a gentle place, where renaissance aspects are deeply intertwined with the ancient Roman inheritance. Here the natural charms of untouched Mother Earth are joined by the fascination of Baroque art and of the long porticoed central street with its Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century buildings which confer elegance to it. It is a city whose nature was shaped by the expert hands of goldsmiths, by the flavour and perfumes of tradition, by the inebriating vineyards which surround it; a city dedicated to the harmony of ancient musical notes, where the past comes back to life when the historical re-enactments immerge the visitor into ancient renaissance atmospheres.
We are welcomed by the Occhio di Fossombrone (the eye of Fossombrone), the Bridge of Concord, which offers a unique, unreal optical effect, when its round curve is reflected in the waters of the Metauro River.
Gabicce Mare offers a truly suggestive view of the landscape: in the area directly on the sea, the tourist finds hotels and equipped bathing establishments, while in the hilly part of Gabicce there is a panoramic glimpse surrounded by greenery, from which you can observe the whole coast, wonderful at sunset!
Also in Gabicce Monte there are elite hotels and typical bed and breakfasts and restaurants where you can spend peaceful summer evenings, enjoying an exclusive panorama.
The beach of fine sand, the hotels by the sea, the ideal climate for a holiday in the sun, the welcome and the kindness of the villagers characterize Gabicce Mare.
Gabicce Mare is synonymous with hospitality and friendliness, in this place guests experience a holiday full of emotions.
The location is enviable, a small gulf overlooking the Adriatic, with clean sea, equipped beaches - umbrellas and camp beds - games, parties and entertainment from sunrise to sunset.
From the greenery of the park you go directly to the blue of the sea; you thus have a suggestive panoramic view from Gabicce Monte: a unique postcard to admire. The influence of Mount Gabicce gives well-being and healthy air recommended by family doctors to parents with young children.
The cliff emerges from the beach, an unusual seascape for the sandy coast of the Marche region.
The colors of the cliff and the gorse, right next to the water, make the beaches located at the foot of the Monte San Bartolo park even more suggestive. This protected area offers unprecedented natural scenarios. Photography enthusiasts can easily grasp the flowering of the gorse, the expanses of Pliny straws, the Aleppo pine and the rare maritime linen, not to mention the fauna, which the tourist is lucky enough to glimpse: roe deer, foxes, badgers, porcupines, sea birds and birds of prey.
Gabicce Mare is also the city of cycling tourism since 1980 - www.gabiccemarebike.it and since 1992 it has been the favorite city of historic MG cars, so much so that every two years the legendary "ladies" gather in Gabicce Mare, 200 crews, to participate in the MG BY THE SEA event.
From April to October, the cycle-tourists choose to spend their holidays in Gabicce Mare, where day after day they discover, in the saddle of their bicycle, the Pesaro hinterland.
Many food and wine delicacies are typical of our land, the tastiest dishes are particularly appreciated and sought after by sportsmen, but also by their families, while the excellent fish cooked with the most genuine flavors is the favorite dish by all tourists.
Speaking of sports, an excellent sports facility with regular football fields is available to football fans.
The sports fields of Gabicce Mare represent the ideal location for events not only related to sport, but to music, to great shows, in short, to the fun most sought after by event organizers.
These are just a few hints of the beauty of Gabicce Mare, all to be discovered!
It is the territory of the Colli al Metauro municipality, born in 2017 from the union of Saltara, Serrungarina and Montemaggiore al Metauro, crossed by the waters of its great protagonist, the Metauro river, the longest in Marche: a glorious child of the Appenine mountains, as Torquato Tasso called it. Its crystal waters flow down in the valley under the soft hills on whose tops raise small hamlets. Always a strategic transit point, along which run both the the river and path of the ancient Via Flaminia, a Roman road built in 220 b.C. by Gaius Flaminius Nepote, which for centuries was the only link between Rome and Northern Italy. The presence of these fundamental threads gave Colli al Metauro a story rich with important events which intertwined, without ever breaking them, with the humble rural habits of its population, who keep protecting and loving this land, working its farmland and respecting its historical monuments, with the
cheerful but solid calm of people tied to their land by strong roots.
of life reigns undisputed, enriched with harmony and enthusiasm: In such a land lies Sant’Angelo in Vado, a romantic, ancient small city, capable of satisfying the inner wishes of those who walk along its centuries-old alleys and breath an air rich with history, culture, art and the perfume of delicious products of the earth. Here, by the high valley of the Metauro river, in the middle of a bucolic landscape, time appears to have stopped; and visiting the old town centre, rich with buildings which mark the passage of the ages, unique archaeological and artistic wonders can be found; wonders surrounded by an uncontaminated Nature, by the typical perfumes of His Majesty the fine White Truffle, and by the inebriating and original flavours of the Santangiolino wine or of the only smoked Vin Santo (literally: Holy Wine) in the world, produced right here, in Sant’Angelo in Vado.
The toponym traditionally derives from a pergola that adorned the ancient entrance of one of its churches, Santa Maria della Pergola but, according to another hypothesis, Pergola was that territory that could be reached through a “gorge”, inhabited since prehistoric times by Celts, Gauls and Romans.
The landscape opens up on an enchanting scenery: hills and farmhouses, vineyards and woods, churches and ancient villages, in the distance the imposing profile of Mount Catria, at the foot of which Dante stopped. The old town is rich in medieval buildings with stone, pointed arch portals and tower-houses, confirming the importance that the city gained over time. For centuries, it has jealously guarded its appearance with narrow streets and the buildings with the characteristic “doors of the dead”, doors raised above street level, to which they were connected by retractable wooden steps from which an internal staircase started, very steep, to the top floor, so narrow as to allow only one person to walk, which had a purely defensive purpose, because, thanks to their shape, a single man could defend their home from attackers.
The numerous churches have attributed to the City the appellative of “Holy Pergoletta” or “City from the hundred churches”, sign of religiousness and strong traditions.
Pergola is also the city of the Golden Bronzes, the only example of gilded bronze group of the Roman era in the world. The sculptures, for their grandeur, beauty and suggestion, have no equal and are kept in a museum full of unforgettable testimonies.
Pergola still today is nicknamed “the City of One Hundred Churches“, for the many places of worship dating back to the time of the long dependence on the Church State.
The Gothic Church of San Giacomo, dating back to the twelfth century, is one of the oldest: with a rectangular plan, it houses an interesting wooden crucifix of the early ‘400. Not far away, the Church of San Francesco, founded by the Franciscans in 1255 and transformed in the following century, is characterized by a beautiful fourteenth-century portal with a pointed sandstone arch.
The magnificent Cathedral, built by the Augustinian monks in 1258, combines the original Romanesque-Gothic style of the bell tower with the late Baroque interior and the neoclassical facade. The co-cathedral with its three naves and the relic containing the head of San Secondo, a rare example of late Gothic jewellery.
The interiors of three other churches are also baroque: that of the Three Kings in Santa Maria dell’Assunta, that of Santa Maria delle Tinte and that of San Biagio. Not to mention the Church of Santa Maria di Piazza, one of the oldest in the city, with frescoes of the fifteenth century or the Oratory of the Ascension to Palazzolo, which houses frescoes that represent one of the highest moments of fresco painting of the fifteenth century in the Marche.
In this religious itinerary, worth mentioning are the ancient “doors of the dead“. Present in many medieval towns in central Italy, they have ancient origins, probably dating back to the Etruscans. Doors raised above street level, to which they were connected by retractable wooden steps from which an internal staircase started, very steep, to the top floor. Doors, so narrow as to allow only one person to walk, which had a purely defensive purpose, because, thanks to their shape, a single man could defend their home from attackers. Subsequently, when their defensive function failed, they were used to let out, with their feet in front, the deceased from their home, and then promptly walled up again.
It is also worth taking some time to visit the Palazzo Comunale, built to a design by Rimini’s G. Good friends after 1750.
The Museum of the Golden Bronzes and the City of Pergola preserves precious and unique assets, the Golden Bronzes from Cartoceto di Pergola, the only group of gilded bronze of the Roman era existing in the world. Nine quintals of bronze and gold were masterfully forged two thousand years ago and are exhibited in this museum.
The city’s architectural excellence is the Angel Dal Foco Theatre, set inside the ancient warehouses of Monte di Pietà. Particularly interesting is the plan made of mule iron, with three tiers of boxes, stalls and gallery. The reconstruction of the ‘700 dates back to when Pergola was elevated to the rank of City. For this privilege, in fact, it was necessary for the community to have a Town Hall and a Theatre in which hosts a very prestigious theatre season.
Finally, the historical Gardens of the City represent a pleasant and elegant walk in a green lung of the center.
Visit the Apollo theater which stands on the northwest walls as you enter Piazza della Rovere. The theater dates from the end of the 18th century, it was built in an old church dedicated to San Filippo Neri. The theater was completely renovated in 1887 according to the tastes of the heyday. Once functional again after its restoration, it hosts a remarkable theatrical season.
Visit of the Insignia Collegiata building dating from the 14th century, renovated in 1563 by Bartolomeo Genga. The dedication of the church to Saints Peter and Paterniano which dates back to 1444 derives from the unification of two parishes distant from each other, while the Collegiata Insignia was erected from 1741, when it was necessary enlarge the church because it had become the largest in the region. Inside are works of exquisite work such as the Guardian Angel of Bottani from the 18th century. Finally a visit to the Church of San Francesco. Tradition has it that the church was built by the will of Saint Francis of Assisi on the occasion of his visit to Mondavio in the 13th century. The current internal structure dates from the reconstruction of the 18th century while the facade has retained the original austerity and simplicity that distinguish the buildings of the Franciscan Order. Inside valuable works and among the most important "the Immaculate Conception" by the painter Giuliano Presutti
of San Pier Damiani: the prior of the nearby Abbey of Fonte Avellana who in the 11th century boiled the showy architecture like a pride oculorum. From the monumental factories and from the squares that rhythm the urban spaces, the gaze is attracted by the verdant Apennines: an admirable backdrop for every glimpse that in autumn, with the colors from the yellow
red, it becomes the protagonist of the foliage.
Cagli, which in the 6th century was one of the
cornerstones of the Byzantine Pentapoli, it is repeatedly mentioned in Roman itineraries.
In the fourth century, Servius Honored, commenting on Virgil's Aeneid, also clarified a possible misunderstanding by affirming "Cales civitatis [today's Calvi] est Campaniae, nam in Flaminia est, quae Cale [Cagli precisely] dicitur".
Established since the twelfth century, the free municipality
di Cagli soon subjugated over 52 castles, rousing the rural nobility and facing the feudal policy of the abbots. Its expansion followed the boundaries of the jurisdiction of the diocese of Cagli which in Greciano (4th century) includes its first bishop.
Partially destroyed by fire, set by the Ghibellines in 1287, the city is moved, from the offshoots of Mount Petrano, and rebuilt from scratch
on the plateau incorporating the pre-existing village. For
the refoundation, under the protective wing of Nicholas IV,
Arnolfo di Cambio's urban plan with orthogonal axes was used in 1289. The advanced urban fabric would have provided ideas to Leon Battista Alberti to trace the design of the ideal city.
Of this would be some elements in the famous table attributed to Laurana (close collaborator of Alberti) among which one, in the background, would match the plateau made up of Mount Petrano.
The existing ones are not simple coincidences
between the ideal city and Cagli: a city for which
the Montefeltro family showed particular attention for a long time. On the other hand, Franceschini writes, that of the Montefeltro family at its birth in the territories of the Church is "a regional state, an expression of the princely family and of the cities of Urbino
and Cagli and their suburbs ". In fact "in the alliance of February 1376 the cities of Urbino and Cagli
they participated in the covenant with the Lord on a foot of equality ”.
Despite the setback set by the fire of 1287, Cagli soon returned to being a thriving center. In fact, in a register of payment of taxes to the Church of 1312, revised following the sharp demographic decline due to famines,
Cagli was made up of about 7,200 inhabitants. Moreover, shortly after, in the Constitutiones Aegidianae of 1357, Cagli appears between
the nine cities of the Marca (together for today's Province in Pesaro, Fano
It was above all the manufactures, consisting in particular in the processing of woolen cloths (later also in silk) and in the tanning of the hides, which developed considerably under the Dukes of Urbino supported the economic development of the city.
The devolution of the Duchy of Urbino to the Papal States, in 1631, subjects Cagli to the same economic policy dictated for the Marches: primarily cereal agriculture.
The low yields in the Apennine areas would have led to an unstoppable economic retreat.
It happens that the city slowly comes out
from the new paths of art history. The substantial historical and artistic heritage, which had been defaced by the violent earthquake of 1781, underwent various Napoleonic 'looting'. The Unification of Italy ignites anti-clerical hearts. The construction of the Fano-Fabriano-Rome railway, the erection of the new Municipal Theater and new public spaces give consistency
to progressive vision. Next to this there is the chapter on the dispossession of the brotherhoods and confiscated monasteries.
The events of the city of Cagli are now diluted within the vast framework of national history. The destruction of the railway by the Nazi army in 1944 and the loss of the role of great connecting artery of the Flaminia mark a long period of decline for Cagli and the valleys which stops and changes direction, finally, towards the last part of the second Millennium.
Tourist Information Office - Municipality of Cagli
Via Alessandri, 4 - 61043 Cagli (PU)
tel. 0721 780773
www.comune.cagli.ps.it firstname.lastname@example.org http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cagli
Ufficio Cultura - Comune di Cagli
Piazza Matteotti, 1 - 61043 Cagli (PU)
tel. 0721 780731
Associazione Turistica Pro Loco
Via Leopardi, 3 - 61043 Cagli (PU)
tel. 0721 787457
in museums - or by the typical products of the territory, the wines and the recipes that richly dress up the table, this place
lives both in and out of time. In Terre Roveresche ancient castles rise on the top of hills designing the profile of the landscape and hide in their narrow alleys little and incredibly unique jewels by an inestimable historical and artistic value.
It was then an important Roman center, known as Fanum Fortunae, a name that refers to the "Temple of Fortune", probably erected as a testimony to the battle of the Metauro: it was the year 207 BC. and the Roman legions routed the army of the Carthaginian general Asdrubale, killing the leader who, after crossing the Alps with war elephants, intended to reunite with his brother Annibale.
The city developed considerably during Roman rule thanks to its strategic position on the road that connected the Tiber valley to Cisalpine Gaul. In 49 BC Gaius Julius Caesar conquered it together with Pesaro, thus starting the Civil War against the antagonist Pompeo.
Only later did Cesare Ottaviano Augusto endow the settlement with walls (still partially visible), raising the settlement to the status of Roman colony with the name of Colonia Julia Fanestris.
A few centuries later, in 271 AD, the Battle of Fano took place near it, which marked the end of the attempt by the Alemanni to reach Rome, defeated by the emperor Aurelian.
During Attila's invasion of Italy (452-453), Fano sent, together with the other neighboring cities of Rimini and Ancona, military aid to the city of Aquileia which in 452 was under siege. The Fano commander Bartolagi da Fano died during the siege and his remains were then moved to the church of S. Pietro in Episcopio in Fano. The city of Fano was sacked by Attila in 453 AD. before heading to Rome where, according to tradition, its advance was stopped by Pope Leo I.
During the sixth century Gothic War, due to its position in the connections between northern and southern Italy, it was besieged and devastated by the Ostrogoths of Vitige (538) and shortly afterwards rebuilt by the Byzantine army of Belisarius and Narsete.
Subsequently it became part of the maritime Pentapoli (Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia, Ancona) of which it was head. Subsequently it was occupied by the Lombards and the Franks, until Otto III donated it to Pope Silvestro II.
In 1141 the city became protectorate of the Republic of Venice following the signing of a treaty.
In the thirteenth century Fano was established as a municipality; in the following century it was for a short period under the Este domain, after which it was torn apart by the internal struggle between two families: the del Cassero and the da Carignano.
At the end of the thirteenth century the city passed under the Malatesta rule of Rimini, thanks to a plot hatched by the latter against the two rival families. The Malatesta family remained in power in the city until 1463, when Sigismondo Malatesta had to leave Fano to the Duke of Urbino Federico da Montefeltro after a long siege, during which the Arch of Augustus, symbol of the city, was damaged. The population refused to join the Duchy of Urbino and therefore became an ecclesiastical vicariate.
During the Napoleonic occupation of the Papal States it was sacked and severely bombed by Bonaparte's army.
He actively participated in the Risorgimento uprisings with the creation of provisional governments.
During the First World War (1915-1918) it underwent numerous Austrian naval bombings and also in the Second World War (1940-1945) being on the Gothic Line it underwent numerous allied air raids aimed at the destruction of its railway and road bridges and, by the retreating German army, the destruction of almost all its bell towers (except those of S. Francesco di Paola and San Marco), the civic tower, the male of the Malatesta fortress and its fishing port, considered by the enemy to be sensitive infrastructures not to be left in the hands of allies.
«On the Apennines, the largest battle in Italy was fought south of San Marino; the names of Fano, Pesaro, Cattolica, Riccione and Rimini will remain in the history of the war »
(Oberst i.G. Dietrich Beelitz und Oberst i. G. Adolf Heckel, Deutsches Hauptquartier Bellaria, summer 1945.)